- Russian assets supported far-right candidate Marine Le Pen.
In 2017, Russia followed up its American interference with a bout of meddling in the French presidential election. Right before the election, a batch of private emails from frontrunner (and eventual winner) Emmanuel Macron was released, and many suspected the Russians. Later, the NSA confirmed it, making it yet another example of high-profile cyber espionage coming straight from the Kremlin in recent years. Their attempts fell short, however, as Macron was still elected.
Next: Putin’s North American efforts weren’t relegated to the U.S.